In theory, inkjet technology is simple – a printhead ejects a pattern of tiny drops of ink onto a substrate without actually touching it. Dots using different coloured inks are combined together to create photo-quality images.
In practice, however, the successful implementation of the technology is very complex. The dots that are ejected are smaller than the diameter of a human hair (70 μm), and they need to be positioned very precisely to achieve resolutions as fine as 1440×1440 dots per inch (dpi).
This precision requires multi-disciplinary skills: a combination of careful design, implementation and operation across physics, fluid mechanics, chemistry and engineering.